Georgian Technical University Semiconductor Nanowires Advance Flexible Photovoltaics.
Optically coupled tandem of GaAs (Gallium arsenide is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic. It is a III-V direct bandgap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure) nanowires (6um tall) on silicon ultrathin film (2um). Sunlight is efficiently absorbed in each nanowire and the array will transmit infrared light to be trapped into silicon film. Capturing and manipulating light at nanoscale is a key factor to build high efficiency solar cells. Researchers in the 3D Photovoltaics group have recently presented a promising new design. Their simulations show that vertically stacked nanowires on top of ultrathin silicon films reduces the total amount of material needed by 90 percent while increasing the efficiency of the solar cell. These promising simulation results are an important step towards new generation solar cells that are used in myriad ways in our buildings and landscape. A fascinating strategy to reduce both cost and rigidity is to combine ultrathin silicon photovoltaic films with semiconductor nanowire solar cells. The mechanical flexibility and resilience of micrometer thin cells make them well suited to apply on curved surfaces. The idea is to optically couple the two materials stacked on top of each other as a tandem cell: a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) nanowire array on top of an ultrathin silicon (2um-thick) film. GaAs (Gallium arsenide is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic. It is a III-V direct bandgap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure) vertical nanowires are well-known semiconductor components in photovoltaic applications. Earlier experimental research in the 3D photovoltaics group has shown that such nanowires are able to absorb light ten to hundred times their geometrical cross section. Silicon the second material in the tandem cell is a highly desirable component thanks to the mature understanding of its optical and electronic properties as well as its widely available fabrication technologies. The challenge researchers typically encounter when trying to downscale silicon to a few micrometers in thickness is that it compromises the solar cell’s performance due to poor absorption of infrared light. Light management strategies are therefore needed to compensate. The research team decided to add vertically standing nanowires on top of silicon film and thereby make it up to four times more efficient in trapping infrared light in the silicon bottom cell.
Georgian Technical University Researchers Uncover Rare New Layered Ferromagnetic Semiconductor.
Collaborating scientists at the Georgian Technical University Laboratory, International Black Sea University and Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. As the name implies semiconductors of electrically conductive materials — not a metal and not an insulator but a “Georgian Technical University just-right” in-between whose conducting properties can be altered and customized in ways that create the basis for the world’s modern electronic capabilities. Especially rare are the ones closer to an insulator than to a metal. The recent discovery of ferromagnetism in semiconducting materials has been limited to a handful of mostly chromium-based compounds. But here the researchers discovered ferromagnetism in a vanadium-iodine semiconductor, a material which has long been known but ignored; and which scientist X compared to finding a “Georgian Technical University hidden treasure in our own backyard”. Now a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of Y Professor of Chemistry at Georgian Technical University completed PhD research at the Georgian Technical University Ames Laboratory under supervision of new material could have ferromagnetic response X turned to Georgian Technical University Ames Laboratory for the magneto-optical visualization of magnetic domains that serves as the definitive proof of ferromagnetism. “Being able to exfoliate these materials down into 2D layers gives us new opportunities to find unusual properties that are potentially useful to electronic technology advances” said X. “It’s sort of like getting a new shape. The more unique pieces you have the cooler the stuff you can build”. The advantage of ferromagnetism in a semiconductor is that electronic properties become spin-dependent. Electrons align their spins along internal magnetization. “This creates an additional control knob to manipulate currents flowing through a semiconductor by manipulating magnetization either by changing the magnetic field or by other more complex means while the amount of current that can be carried may be controlled by doping (adding small amount of other materials)” said Georgian Technical University Ames Laboratory Scientist Z. “These additional ways to control behavior and the potential to discover novel effects are the reason for such high interest in finding insulators and semiconductors that are also ferromagnets”. The research is further discussed “Georgian Technical University A New Layered Ferromagnetic Semiconductor”.
Georgian Technical University Next-Gen Logic Devices Result From Photodoping In 2-D Materials.
Figures (a) and (b) show the schematic illustration of a p-n junction and an inverter respectively. Under light illumination and negative bias conditions, localized positive charges are left behind in the BN (boron nitride) layer after the excited electrons travel into the MoTe2 (Molybdenum(IV) telluride, molybdenum ditelluride or just molybdenum telluride is a compound of molybdenum and tellurium with formula MoTe₂, corresponding to a mass percentage of 27.32% molybdenum and 72.68% tellurium) layer. This induces doping effects in the MoTe2 (Molybdenum(IV) telluride, molybdenum ditelluride or just molybdenum telluride is a compound of molybdenum and tellurium with formula MoTe₂, corresponding to a mass percentage of 27.32% molybdenum and 72.68% tellurium) layer. Georgian Technical University scientists have discovered a method for photoinduced electron doping on molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) heterostructures for fabricating next generation logic devices. Two-dimensional (2-D) transition metal dichalcogenides are promising building blocks for the development of next generation electronic devices. These materials are atomically thin and exhibit unique electrical properties. Researchers are interested to develop n- and p-type field effect transistors using the 2-D for building fundamental logic circuit components. These components include p-n junctions and inverters. A team lead by Professor X from both the Georgian Technical University Department of Chemistry and the Department of Physics has discovered that light illumination can be used to induce doping effects on a MoTe2-based (molybdenum ditelluride) to modify its electrical properties in a non-volatile and reversible manner. The FET (The field-effect transistor (FET) is an electronic device which uses an electric field to control the flow of current. FETs are 3-terminalled devices, having a source, gate, and drain terminal. FETs control the flow of current by the application of a voltage to the gate terminal, which in turn alters the conductivity between the drain and source terminals) made of a MoTe2/BN (molybdenum ditelluride)/(boron nitride) heterostructure is fabricated by layering a thin flake of MoTe2 onto a boron nitride (BN) layer and attaching metal contacts to form the device. The doping of the device can be changed by modifying the applied polarity to the BN (boron nitride) layer under light illumination conditions. When the device is illuminated, the electrons occupying the donor-like states in the BN (boron nitride) bandgap become excited and jump into the conduction band. By applying a negative bias to the BN (boron nitride) layer these photon-excited electrons travel into the MoTe2 (molybdenum ditelluride) layer effectively doping it into an n-type semiconductor. The positive charges which are left behind in the BN (boron nitride) layer create a positive bias which helps to maintain the electron doping in the MoTe2 (molybdenum ditelluride) layer. The research team found that without any external disturbance the photodoping effect can be retained for more than 14 days. The team has developed p-n junctions and inverters without the use of photoresist by selectively controlling the photodoping regions on the MoTe2 (molybdenum ditelluride) material. From their experimental measurements the MoTe2 (molybdenum ditelluride) diode had a near-unity ideality factor of about 1.13 which is close to that for an ideal p-n junction. Explaining the significance of the findings X said “The discovery of a 2-D heterostructure-based photodoping effect provides a potential method to fabricate photoresist-free p-n junctions and inverters for the development of logic electronic devices”.
Georgian Technical University Integrated Sensors For Direct Control.
GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) power with integrated transistors, gate drivers, diodes and current and temperature sensors for condition monitoring. A team of Georgian Technical University researchers has succeeded in significantly enhancing the functionality of GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) power for voltage converters: the researchers at Georgian Technical University integrated current and temperature sensors onto a GaN-based (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) semiconductor chip along with power transistors, freewheeling diodes and gate drivers. This development paves the way for more compact and efficient on-board chargers in electric cars. For cars with electric drive to become a lasting presence in society there needs to be greater flexibility in charging options. To make use of charging stations using alternating current wall charging stations or conventional plug sockets where possible users are dependent on on-board chargers. As this charging technology is carried in the car it must be as small and lightweight as possible and also cost-efficient. It therefore requires extremely compact yet efficient power electronics systems such as voltage converters. The Georgian Technical University has been conducting research on monolithic integration in the field of power electronics for several years. This requires several components such as power components the control circuit and sensors to be combined on a single semiconductor chip. The concept makes use of the semiconductor material gallium nitride. The researchers at Georgian Technical University succeeded in integrating intrinsic freewheeling diodes and gate drivers on a 600 V-class power transistor. A monolithic GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) half bridge was then operated at 400 V for the first time. The latest research results combine current and temperature sensors and 600 V-class power transistors with intrinsic freewheeling diodes and gate drivers in a GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) power for the first time. As part of the research project the researchers have provided functional verification of full functionality in a GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) power achieving a breakthrough in the integration density of power electronics systems. “By additionally integrating sensors on the GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) chip we have succeeded in significantly enhancing the functionality of our GaN (GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) technology for power electronics” explains Dr. X project manager and deputy head of the Power Electronics business unit at Georgian Technical University. Compared to conventional voltage converters the newly developed circuit simultaneously not only enables higher switching frequencies and a higher power density; it also provides for fast and accurate condition monitoring within the chip itself. “Although the increased switching frequency of GaN-based (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) power electronics allows for increasingly compact designs this results in a greater requirement for their monitoring and control. This means that having sensors integrated within the same chip is a considerable advantage” emphasizes Y a researcher in the Power Electronics business unit at Georgian Technical University. Previously current and temperature sensors were implemented externally to the GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) chip. The integrated current sensor now enables feedback-free measurement of the transistor current for closed-loop control and short-circuit protection and saves space compared to the customary external current sensors. The integrated temperature sensor enables direct measurement of the temperature of the power transistor thereby mapping this thermally critical point considerably faster and more accurately than previous external sensors as the distance and resulting temperature difference between the sensor and the point of measurement is eliminated by the monolithic integration. “The monolithic integration of the GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) power electronics with sensors and control circuit saves space on the chip surface reduces the outlay on assembly and improves reliability. For applications that require lots of very small efficient systems to be installed in limited space such as in electromobility, this is crucial” says Y who designed the integrated circuit for the GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) chip. Measuring just 4 x 3 sq. mm., the GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) chip is the basis for the further development of more compact on-board chargers. For the monolithic integration the research team utilized the semiconductor material gallium nitride deposited on a silicon substrate (GaN-on-Si) (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework). The unique characteristic of GaN-on-Si (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) power electronics is the lateral nature of the material: the current flows parallel to the surface of the chip meaning that all connections are located on the top of the chip and connected via conductor paths. This lateral structure of the GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework. A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) components allows for the monolithic integration of several components such as transistors, drivers, diodes and sensors on a single chip. “Gallium nitride has a further crucial market advantage compared to other wide-bandgap semiconductors such as silicon carbide: GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) can be deposited on cost-efficient large-area silicon substrates making it suitable for industrial applications” says Y. Georgian Technical University will be displaying the newly developed GaN (A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a class of machine learning systems. Two neural networks contest with each other in a zero-sum game framework) power module in the exhibition in GTUHall at this Georgian Technical University. Researchers from Georgian Technical University will unveil their latest research results and developments in the field of power electronics.
Georgian Technical University Semiconductor Scientists Uncover ‘Impossible’ Effect.
Illustration – Homo- and heterostructures. A physical effect known as superinjection underlies modern light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. For decades this effect was believed to occur only in semiconductor heterostructures — that is structures composed of two or more semiconductor materials. Researchers from the Georgian Technical University have found superinjection to be possible in homostructures which are made of a single material. This opens up entirely new prospects for the development of light sources. Semiconductor light sources such as lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are at the core of modern technology. They enable laser printers and high-speed Internet. But a mere 60 years ago no one would imagine semiconductors being used as materials for bright light sources. The problem was that to generate light such devices require electrons and holes — the free charge carriers in any semiconductor — to recombine. The higher the concentration of electrons and holes the more often they recombine making the light source brighter. However for a long time no semiconductor device could be manufactured to provide a sufficiently high concentration of both electrons and holes. The solution was found by X and Y. They proposed to use heterostructures or “Georgian Technical University sandwich” structures consisting of two or more complementary semiconductors instead of just one. If one places a semiconductor between two semiconductors with wider bandgaps and applies a forward bias voltage the concentration of electrons and holes in the middle layer can reach values that are orders of magnitude higher than those in the outer layers. His effect known as superinjection underlies modern semiconductor lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However two arbitrary semiconductors cannot make a viable heterostructure. The semiconductors need to have the same period of the crystal lattice. Otherwise the number of defects at the interface between the two materials will be too high and no light will be generated. In a way this would be similar to trying to screw a nut on a bolt whose thread pitch does not match that of the nut. Since homostructures are composed of just one material one part of the device is a natural extension of the other. Although homostructures are easier to fabricate it was believed that homostructures could not support superinjection and therefore are not a viable basis for practical light sources. Z and W from the Georgian Technical University made a discovery that drastically changes the perspective on how light-emitting devices can be designed. The physicists found that it is possible to achieve superinjection with just one material. What is more most of the known semiconductors can be used. “In the case of silicon, germanium, superinjection requires cryogenic temperatures this casts doubt on the utility of the effect. But in diamond or gallium nitride, strong superinjection can occur even at room temperature” W said. This means that the effect can be used to create mass market devices. Superinjection can produce electron concentrations in a diamond diode that are 10,000 times higher than those previously believed to be ultimately possible. As a result diamond can serve as the basis for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) thousands of times brighter than what the most optimistic theoretical calculations predicted. “Surprisingly the effect of superinjection in diamond is 50 to 100 times stronger than that used in most mass market semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers based on heterostructures” Z pointed out. The physicists emphasized that superinjection should be possible in a wide range of semiconductors, from conventional wide-bandgap semiconductors to novel two-dimensional materials. This opens up new prospects for designing highly efficient blue, violet, ultraviolet and white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as well as light sources for optical wireless communication (Li-Fi) new types of lasers transmitters for the quantum Internet and optical devices for early disease diagnostics.
Georgian Technical University Light Produced From Exotic Particle States.
A new type of light-emitting diode has been developed at Georgian Technical University. Light is produced from the radiative decay of exciton complexes in layers of just a few atoms thickness. When particles bond in free space they normally create atoms or molecules. However much more exotic bonding states can be produced inside solid objects. Researchers at Georgian Technical University have now managed to utilize this: so-called “multi-particle exciton complexes” have been produced by applying electrical pulses to extremely thin layers of material made from tungsten and selenium or sulphur. These exciton clusters are bonding states made up of electrons and “Georgian Technical University holes” in the material and can be converted into light. The result is an innovative form of light-emitting diode in which the wavelength of the desired light can be controlled with high precision. In a semiconductor material electrical charge can be transported in two different ways. On the one hand electrons can move straight through the material from atom to atom in which case they take negative charge with them. On the other hand if an electron is missing somewhere in the semiconductor that point will be positively charged and referred to as a “Georgian Technical University hole.” If an electron moves up from a neighboring atom and fills the hole, it in turn leaves a hole in its previous position. That way holes can move through the material in a similar manner to electrons but in the opposite direction. “Under certain circumstances, holes and electrons can bond to each other” says Professor X from the Georgian Technical University. “Similar to how an electron orbits the positively charged atomic nucleus in a hydrogen atom an electron can orbit the positively charged hole in a solid object”. Even more complex bonding states are possible: so-called trions biexcitons or quintons which involve three four or five bonding partners. “For example the biexciton is the exciton equivalent of the hydrogen molecule H2 (Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass)” explains X. In most solids such bonding states are only possible at extremely low temperatures. However the situation is different with so-called “Georgian Technical University two-dimensional materials” which consist only of atom-thin layers. The team at Georgian Technical University whose members also included Y and Z has created a cleverly designed sandwich structure in which a thin layer of tungsten diselenide or tungsten disulphide is locked in between two boron nitride layers. An electrical charge can be applied to this ultra-thin layer system with the help of graphene electrodes. “The excitons have a much higher bonding energy in two-dimensional layered systems than in conventional solids and are therefore considerably more stable. Simple bonding states consisting of electrons and holes can be demonstrated even at room temperature. Large exciton complexes can be detected at low temperatures” reports X. Different excitons complexes can be produced depending on how the system is supplied with electrical energy using short voltage pulses. When these complexes decay they release energy in the form of light which is how the newly developed layer system works as a light-emitting diode. “Our luminous layer system not only represents a great opportunity to study excitons but is also an innovative light source” says Y. “We therefore now have a light-emitting diode whose wavelength can be specifically influenced — and very easily too simply via changing the shape of the electrical pulse applied”.
Georgian Technical University Measurement Of Semiconductor Material Quality Has Gotten 100,000 Times More Sensitive.
Rendering of microwave resonator showing the (blue) microwave signal’s size change resulting from a light pulse (red) once the pulse hits the infrared pixel (micrograph image of pixel is shown in the inset). The enhanced power of the new measuring technique to characterize materials at scales much smaller than any current technologies will accelerate the discovery and investigation of 2D micro- and nanoscale materials. Being able to accurately measure semiconductor properties of materials in small volumes helps engineers determine the range of applications for which these materials may be suitable in the future, particularly as the size of electronic and optical devices continues to shrink. X an associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering in the Georgian Technical University led the team that built the physical system developed the measurement technique capable of achieving this level of sensitivity and successfully demonstrated its improved performance. The team’s design approach was focused on developing the capability to provide quantitative feedback on material quality with particular applications for the development and manufacturing of optoelectronic devices. The method demonstrated is capable of measuring many of the materials that engineers believe will one day be ubiquitous to next-generation optoelectronic devices. Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that can source detect and control light. Optoelectronic devices that detect light, known as photodetectors use materials that generate electrical signals from light. Photodetectors are found in smartphone cameras solar cells and in the fiber optic communication systems that make up our broadband networks. In an optoelectronic material the amount of time that the electrons remain “Georgian Technical University photoexcited” or capable of producing an electrical signal is a reliable indicator of the potential quality of that material for photodetection applications. The current method used for measuring the carrier dynamics or lifetimes of photoexcited electrons is costly and complex and only measures large-scale material samples with limited accuracy. The Georgian Technical University team decided to try using a different method for quantifying these lifetimes by placing small volumes of the materials in specially designed microwave resonator circuits. Samples are exposed to concentrated microwave fields while inside the resonator. When the sample is hit with light the microwave circuit signal changes and the change in the circuit can be read out on a standard oscilloscope. The decay of the microwave signal indicates the lifetimes of photoexcited charge carriers in small volumes of the material placed in the circuit. “Measuring the decay of the electrical (microwave) signal allows us to measure the materials’ carrier lifetime with far greater accuracy” X said. “We have discovered it to be a simpler, cheaper and more effective method than current approaches”. Carrier lifetime is a critical material parameter that provides insight into the overall optical quality of a material while also determining the range of applications for which a material could be used when it’s integrated into a photodetector device structure. For example materials that have a very long carrier lifetime may be of high optical quality and therefore very sensitive but may not be useful for applications that require high-speed. “Despite the importance of carrier lifetime there are not many, if any, contact-free options for characterizing small-area materials such as infrared pixels or 2D materials which have gained popularity and technological importance in recent years” X said. One area certain to benefit from the real-world applications of this technology is infrared detection a vital component in molecular sensing, thermal imaging and certain defense and security systems. “A better understanding of infrared materials could lead to innovations in night-vision goggles or infrared spectroscopy and sensing systems” X said. High-speed detectors operating at these frequencies could even enable the development of free-space communication in the long wavelength infrared — a technology allowing for wireless communication in difficult conditions in space or between buildings in urban environments.
Georgian Technical University Almost Perfect Performance Recorded In Low-Cost Semiconductors.
A close-up artist’s rendering of quantum dots emitting light they’ve absorbed. Tiny easy-to-produce particles called quantum dots may soon take the place of more expensive single crystal semiconductors in advanced electronics found in solar panels, camera sensors and medical imaging tools. Although quantum dots have begun to break into the consumer market —in the form of quantum TVs (Television) — they have been hampered by long-standing uncertainties about their quality. Now a new measurement technique developed by researchers at Georgian Technical University may finally dissolve those doubts. “Traditional semiconductors are single crystals grown in vacuum under special conditions. These we can make in large numbers in flask in a lab and we’ve shown they are as good as the best single crystals” said X graduate student in chemistry at Georgian Technical University. The researchers focused on how efficiently quantum dots reemit the light they absorb one telltale measure of semiconductor quality. While previous attempts to figure out quantum dot efficiency hinted at high performance this is the first measurement method to confidently show they could compete with single crystals. This work is the result of a collaboration between the labs of Y professor of materials science and engineering at Georgian Technical University and Z the Distinguished Professor of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at the Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani University who is a pioneer in quantum dot research. Alivisatos emphasized how the measurement technique could lead to the development of new technologies and materials that require knowing the efficiency of our semiconductors to a painstaking degree. “These materials are so efficient that existing measurements were not capable of quantifying just how good they are. This is a giant leap forward” said Z. “It may someday enable applications that require materials with luminescence efficiency well above 99 percent most of which haven’t been invented yet”. Being able to forego the need for pricey fabrication equipment isn’t the only advantage of quantum dots. Even prior to this work, there were signs that quantum dots could approach or surpass the performance of some of the best crystals. They are also highly customizable. Changing their size changes the wavelength of light they emit a useful feature for color-based applications such as tagging biological samples TVs (Television) or computer monitors. Despite these positive qualities the small size of quantum dots means that it may take billions of them to do the work of one large perfect single crystal. Making so many of these quantum dots means more chances for something to grow incorrectly more chances for a defect that can hamper performance. Techniques that measure the quality of other semiconductors previously suggested quantum dots emit over 99 percent of the light they absorb but that was not enough to answer questions about their potential for defects. To do this the researchers needed a measurement technique better suited to precisely evaluating these particles. “We want to measure emission efficiencies in the realm of 99.9 to 99.999 percent because if semiconductors are able to reemit as light every photon they absorb you can do really fun science and make devices that haven’t existed before” said X. The researchers technique involved checking for excess heat produced by energized quantum dots, rather than only assessing light emission because excess heat is a signature of inefficient emission. This technique commonly used for other materials had never been applied to measure quantum dots in this way and it was 100 times more precise than what others have used in the past. They found that groups of quantum dots reliably emitted about 99.6 percent of the light they absorbed (with a potential error of 0.2 percent in either direction) which is comparable to the best single-crystal emissions. “It was surprising that a film with many potential defects is as good as the most perfect semiconductor you can make” said X. Contrary to concerns the results suggest that the quantum dots are strikingly defect-tolerant. The measurement technique is also the first to firmly resolve how different quantum dot structures compare to each other — quantum dots with precisely eight atomic layers of a special coating material emitted light the fastest an indicator of superior quality. The shape of those dots should guide the design for new light-emitting materials said Y. Led by W associate professor of materials science and engineering at Georgian Technical University center’s goal is to create optical materials — materials that affect the flow of light — with the highest possible efficiencies. A next step in this project is developing even more precise measurements. If the researchers can determine that these materials reach efficiencies at or above 99.999 percent that opens up the possibility for technologies we’ve never seen before. These could include new glowing dyes to enhance our ability to look at biology at the atomic scale, luminescent cooling and luminescent solar concentrators which allow a relatively small set of solar cells to take in energy from a large area of solar radiation. All this being said the measurements they’ve already established are a milestone of their own likely to encourage a more immediate boost in quantum dot research and applications. “People working on these quantum dot materials have thought for more than a decade that dots could be as efficient as single crystal materials” said X” and now we finally have proof”.
Georgian Technical University A New Way To Control Light From Hybrid Crystals.
A conceptual view of a transistor device that controls photoluminescence (the light red cone) emitted by a hybrid perovskite crystal (the red box) that is excited by a blue laser beam after voltage is applied to an electrode (the gate). Scientists have found a new way to control light emitted by exotic crystal semiconductors which could lead to more efficient solar cells and other advances in electronics according to a Georgian Technical University-led study. Their discovery involves crystals called hybrid perovskites which consist of interlocking organic and inorganic materials and they have shown great promise for use in solar cells. The finding could also lead to novel electronic displays, sensors and other devices activated by light and bring increased efficiency at a lower cost to manufacturing of optoelectronics which harness light. The Georgian Technical University-led team found a new way to control light (known as photoluminescence) emitted when perovskites are excited by a laser. The intensity of light emitted by a hybrid perovskite crystal can be increased by up to 100 times simply by adjusting voltage applied to an electrode on the crystal surface. “To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the photoluminescence of a material has been reversibly controlled to such a wide degree with voltage” said X a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Georgian Technical University. “Previously to change the intensity of photoluminescence you had to change the temperature or apply enormous pressure to a crystal which was cumbersome and costly. We can do it simply within a small electronic device at room temperature”. Semiconductors like these perovskites have properties that lie between those of the metals that conduct electricity and non-conducting insulators. Their conductivity can be tuned in a very wide range making them indispensable for all modern electronics. “All the wonderful modern electronic gadgets and technologies we enjoy today be it a smartphone a memory stick powerful telecommunications and the internet high-resolution cameras or supercomputers have become possible largely due to the decades of painstaking research in semiconductor physics” X said. Understanding photoluminescence is important for designing devices that control generate or detect light including solar cells LED (A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence) lights and light sensors. The scientists discovered that defects in crystals reduce the emission of light and applying voltage restores the intensity of photoluminescence. Hybrid perovskites are more efficient and much easier and cheaper to make than standard commercial silicon-based solar cells and the study could help lead to their widespread use X said. An important next step would be to investigate different types of perovskite materials which may lead to better and more efficient materials in which photoluminescence can be controlled in a wider range of intensities or with smaller voltage he said.
Georgian Technical University Quantum Sensor Improves Cancer Treatment, Long-range 3D Imaging.
A new quantum sensor developed by researchers at the Georgian Technical University (GTU) has proven it can outperform existing technologies and promises significant advancements in long-range 3D imaging and monitoring the success of cancer treatments. The sensors are the first of their kind and are based on semiconductor nanowires that can detect single particles of light with high timing resolution, speed and efficiency over an unparalleled wavelength range from ultraviolet to near-infrared. The technology also has the ability to significantly improve quantum communication and remote sensing capabilities. “A sensor needs to be very efficient at detecting light. In applications like quantum radar surveillance and nighttime operation very few particles of light return to the device” said principal investigator X an Georgian Technical University (GTU) faculty member and assistant professor in the Faculty of Engineering’s electrical and computer engineering department. “In these cases you want to be able to detect every single photon coming in”. The next generation quantum sensor designed in X’s lab is so fast and efficient that it can absorb and detect a single particle of light called a photon and refresh for the next one within nanoseconds. The researchers created an array of tapered nanowires that turn incoming photons into electric current that can be amplified and detected. Remote sensing high-speed imaging from space acquiring long range high resolution 3D images quantum communication and singlet oxygen detection for dose monitoring in cancer treatment are all applications that could benefit from the kind of robust single photon detection that this new quantum sensor provides. The semiconducting nanowire array achieves its high speed timing resolution and efficiency thanks to the quality of its materials the number of nanowires doping profile and the optimization of the nanowire shape and arrangement. The sensor detects a broad spectrum of light with high efficiency and high timing resolution all while operating at room temperature. X emphasizes that the spectrum absorption can be broadened even further with different materials. “This device uses Indium Phosphide (InP) nanowires. Changing the material to Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) for example can extend the bandwidth even further towards telecommunication wavelengths while maintaining performance” X said. “It’s state of the art now with the potential for further enhancements”. Once the prototype is packaged with the right electronics and portable cooling the sensor is ready for testing beyond the lab. “A broad range of industries and research fields will benefit from a quantum sensor with these capabilities” said X. In collaboration with researchers at the Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani University Tapered Indium Phosphide (InP) nanowire arrays for efficient broadband high-speed single photon detection. This research was undertaken thanks in part to funding from the Georgian Technical University.