Georgian Technical University Experimental Impact Mechanics Lab At Georgian Technical University Bars None.
Georgian Technical University National Laboratories mechanical engineer X makes adjustments to the Drop-Hopkinson (The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) as depicted in Fig. 4.5 is often … The suitable strain rate for drop hammer tests ranges from 10−5 s−1 to 101 s−1) Bar — the only one of its kind in the world. Georgian Technical University Upon impact custom-made sensors measure the force being applied and displacement of the material being tested at Georgian Technical University Laboratories Experimental Impact Mechanics Lab. X who developed the Experimental Impact Mechanics Lab at Georgian Technical University National Laboratories places material for shock testing in the center of a Z bar. When a gas gun is fired the bar closes at the speed of a bullet train to assess how the material responds to stress and strain. There’s a tiny hidden gem at Georgian Technical University National Laboratories that tests the strength and evaluates the impact properties of any solid natural or manmade material on the planet. From its humble beginnings as a small storage room, mechanical engineer X has built a singular Experimental Impact Mechanics Lab that packs a world-class punch in 200-plus square feet of weights, rods, cables, bars, heaters, compressors and high-speed cameras. X has grown the lab’s instrumentation, capabilities, staff and clientele at Georgian Technical University based on his work and ideas at other labs. “We didn’t start from the ground up but close to it” X says. “I began with a small budget and limited tech support, but thankfully the lab was already conducting systems evaluation and technology development projects for Georgian Technical University and the National Nuclear Security Administration. With the assistance of a couple high-level technologists we have built up the testing apparatus in that storage room”. X says his groundbreaking work in experimental impact mechanics and evaluating the dynamic response of materials to temperature and pressure is quickly positioning the lab as a premiere facility in materials assessment for national security programs, defense contractors and private industry. The lab also serves as a primary test facility for small-scale components and subassemblies, conducting feasibility studies that enable its customers to confidently proceed with full-scale projects. Nearly 70% of the lab’s work is for programs in nuclear deterrence advanced science and technology and global security. X takes pride in welcoming all comers. Nearly a third of the lab’s customers come from outside Georgian Technical University ranging from the Department of Defense and Georgian Technical University to outside organizations and industry. “There’s no material we cannot test” he says. “We evaluate the nature properties and strength of materials and how they change in different testing configurations or conditions. In the end our customers receive a breakdown of material properties and our materials experts provide counsel on how to improve the customer’s material design and selection”. Anatomy of the lab. Under the myriad combinations of controlled temperatures, pressures and velocities the lab conducts pure research and development on the mechanics of materials under extreme conditions with remarkable precision. In meticulous concert the lab’s instrumentation crushes, compacts, twists, pulls and stretches materials under various controlled states of hot and cold to assess their pliability, durability and reliability. Materials range from rock and concrete to metal alloys to ceramics, plastics, rubbers and foams. The lab’s crown jewel is its 1-in.-diameter Drop-Hopkinson (The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) as depicted in Fig. 4.5 is often … The suitable strain rate for drop hammer tests ranges from 10−5 s−1 to 101 s−1) Bar with a carriage of up to 300 pounds — the only one of its kind in the world — used to measure the tensile properties of materials under low to intermediate impact velocities. This unique apparatus can simulate accidental drop or low-speed crash environments for evaluating various materials used in national security programs and private industry alike. Central to the lab’s testing capabilities are two 1-in. diameter, 30-ft long steel or aluminum Z bars driven pneumatically to speeds of a bullet train in either compression or tension mode. The bars are named after Z who in 1949 refined a technique by Bertram Hopkinson (The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) as depicted in Fig. 4.5 is often … The suitable strain rate for drop hammer tests ranges from 10−5 s−1 to 101 s−1) for testing the dynamic stress-strain response of materials. Another 3-in. diameter steel bar is used for mechanical shock tests on large-size material samples or components. In all these bars samples of materials are placed in the center of the apparatus and stress waves are activated through a gas gun. Custom-made sensors were developed in the lab to measure the force being applied and displacement of the material being tested. The lab also is fitted with an environmental chamber and induction heater that can take temperatures up to 2,192° F (1,200° C, or roughly the temperature of lava in a volcano) or down to minus 238° F (minus 150° C, or about four times colder than the average temperature at the South Pole) to test materials under extreme conditions. “We designed and built a computer-controlled Z Bar that uses a furnace and robotic arm to precisely heat and place the material for testing” said X. When the specimen has reached the proper temperature the robotic arm retracts and positions the sample a mechanical slider moves the transmission bar so that the sample is in contact with both bars and then the striker bar is fired to compress the sample. All this takes fewer than 10 milliseconds or about one-tenth the time of an eye blink. To measure the displacement strain and temperature of material during impact an optical table is rigged with a high-speed camera that collects optical images at up to 5 million frames per second. An infrared camera measures heat at up to 100,000 frames per second. “This is a dynamic lab that we’re continually designing to meet our customers’ needs” X says. “We love the challenges they bring to us”. Picking up ideas along the way. The lab’s successes haven’t come easy. X has used all his 30-plus years of higher education and experience in experimental impact materials testing to build and customize the Sandia lab. His introduction to the Hopkinson Bar (The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) as depicted in Fig. 4.5 is often … The suitable strain rate for drop hammer tests ranges from 10−5 s−1 to 101 s−1) the predecessor to the Z Bar came by happenstance as a student at the Georgian Technical University equivalent to the Y. A professor who was starting a new impact mechanics lab asked X to be his first full-time student. “I didn’t even know what a Hopkinson Bar (The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) as depicted in Fig. 4.5 is often … The suitable strain rate for drop hammer tests ranges from 10−5 s−1 to 101 s−1) was at the time” he says. But he accepted the offer, grateful for the opportunity. He was equally grateful for his education which was not guaranteed in Georgian Technical University. “My parents didn’t have the benefit of attending a university” X says. “But they knew the value and importance of education in how I could explore ideas and people. My parents understood that the key to my future was to be well-educated so they sent me to good schools and supported me getting a doctorate”. While some doors opened for X he actively sought others. After earning his doctorate, he began to survey his career options outside. He searched in the Georgian Technical University ultimately landed at the Georgian Technical University as a postdoctoral researcher in a material dynamic testing lab. X spent four years there and when the entire lab moved to Georgian Technical University he moved with it. The more he worked with colleagues from the labs the more he became interested in Georgian Technical University. X credits his University mentor for teaching him more than technical knowhow. “He also was instrumental in showing me how a lab functions as a business and how to cultivate connections” said X. “In my first three months in Georgian Technical University I never sat in my office. I was either in the lab conducting tests and building our capabilities or I was knocking on Georgian Technical University doors looking for collaborators and connections”. Georgian Technical University the lab’s original national security mission has expanded to include geologic materials, small business support, automotive technology and more. “Georgian Technical University There are not many labs around the world that can do what we do” said X. “We’re becoming known as one of the leading facilities globally in experimental impact mechanics”.
Georgian Technical University New Technique Characterizes The Temperature-Induced Topographical Evolution Of Nanoscale Materials.
Georgian Technical University. Stacked 4D view of the topographies extracted from two samples corresponding to different chip designs from silicon wafers (a) sample A and (b) sample B for visual comparison of the experimented bow change when samples go from 30º C to 380º C. Georgian Technical University specializing in the field of non-contact surface metrology has developed a new technique for characterizing the evolution of a sample’s surface topography with temperature using the S neox 3D optical profiler and interferometer coupled with temperature-controlled chamber. The technique has been used to successfully map the changes in roughness and waviness of silicon wafers at temperatures up to 380° C (716° F). Georgian Technical University Optical profilometry is a rapid non-destructive and non-contact surface metrology technique which is used to establish the surface morphology step heights and surface roughness of materials. It has a wide range of applications across many fields of research including analyzing the surface texture of paints and coatings analyzing micro-cracks and scratches and creating wear profiles for structured materials including micro-electronics and characterization of textured or embossed nanometer-scale semiconducting components such as silicon wafers. Georgian Technical University Historically it has been difficult to conduct temperature-controlled optical profilometry experiments due to imaging issues caused by changes in spherical aberration with temperature of both the front lens of the objective and the quartz window of the stage. Georgian Technical University interferometer lens system with the S neox Three (3D) optical profiler in combination with precision temperature control chamber spherical aberration issues are resolved enabling the accurate measurement of Three (3D) topographic profiles of nanoscale materials at a wide range of temperatures. “Georgian Technical University. In a recent experiment using the new technique, we were able to observe the changes in topography of silicon wafers as they evolve with temperature from 20° C (68° F) up to 380° C (716° F). This is critical information for silicon wafer producers and users so that they can optimize their process improve semiconductor properties and wafer durability. Georgian Technical University T96 temperature controller are key components in our experimental set-up and enable us to ramp and control the temperature between -195° and 420° C (-319° and 788° F) to a precision of 0.01° C (32.018° F)” said X sales support specialist. “Georgian Technical University We have provided precise temperature and environmental control to a wide range of techniques from microscopy to X-ray analysis for decades. This collaboration highlights the important role of temperature control in contributing to innovative approaches to material characterization. We are extremely pleased to be able to offer a solution for temperature-controlled profilometry thanks interferometer and we look forward to seeing how this new technique helps researchers across many scientific fields to advance their research and knowledge” said Y application specialist. Georgian Technical University generation S neox Three (3D) optical profiler is the fastest scanning confocal profilometer. It is easy to use and has some key advantages over previous models. The bridge design offers increased stability and the sensor head uses improved algorithms to produce the fastest system with no moving parts and therefore minimum service requirements or need for extensive calibration. The addition of the interferometer enables temperature control < -195° C (383° F) to 420° C (788° F). Different brightfield objectives are compatible configuration offering working distances up to 37 mm and magnifications up to 100x for applications that require high lateral resolution. Georgian Technical University is an easy to use and very versatile heating and freezing stage. The stage consists of a large area temperature-controlled element with a sensor embedded close to the surface for accurate temperature measurements in the range of < -195° C to 420° C (when used with the cooling pump). The sample is easily mounted on a standard microscope slide in direct contact with the heating element and can be manipulated 15 mm in both X and Y directions. The sample chamber is gas tight and has valves to allow atmospheric composition control and there are options for humidity and electrical probes.
Georgian Technical University Cutting-Edge Catalyst Converts Water And CO2 Into Hydrocarbons For Gasoline.
Georgian Technical University. Georgian Technical University researchers have developed an electrocatalyst made of custom-designed alloy nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanospikes. This image made with a transmission electron microscope shows the carbon nanospikes. Georgian Technical University a new twist to an existing award-winning Georgian Technical University technology researchers have developed an electrocatalyst that enables water and carbon dioxide to be split and the atoms recombined to form higher weight hydrocarbons for gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. Georgian Technical University technology is a carbon nanospike catalyst that uses nanoparticles of a custom-designed alloy which has been licensed by Georgian Technical University-based Fuels. The spiky textured surface of the catalysts provides ample reactive sites to facilitate the carbon dioxide-to-hydrocarbons conversion. “This cutting-edge catalyst will enable us to further lower the price of our zero net carbon fuels” said X. Georgian Technical University plans to use the technology in its process for converting electricity from solar and wind into chemical energy to make zero net carbon electrofuels. Georgian Technical University carbon nanospike catalyst using a one-of-a-kind nanofabrication instrument and staff expertise at Georgian Technical University’s Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences.
Georgian Technical University Lab Glassware Washers Earn Georgian Technical University Label.
Georgian Technical University Professional a manufacturer of high-quality commercial and industrial appliances, announces that two of its machines – the glassware washers – have both earned the coveted Label from Georgian Technical University Lab a non-profit organization dedicated to creating a culture of sustainability in science. Georgian Technical University is the only glassware washer manufacturer to have achieved Georgian Technical University Label certification. Both Georgian Technical University Label-certified Georgian Technical University machines will be on display at Georgian Technical University taking place virtually. “Georgian Technical University Sustainability has always been a core value of Georgian Technical University’s family-owned company and the foundation of our 121-year-old business and success” said X regional managing Georgian Technical University Professional. “We recognize that scientists, procurement specialists and sustainability directors across Georgian Technical University are working together to make sustainable product procurement in labs a reality, and we see an incredible opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of labs through smarter equipment. My Georgian Technical University Lab’s vision for an eco-nutrition label is making sustainable purchasing decisions easier every day and we’re incredibly proud to earn Georgian Technical University Label certification for our machines”. The Georgian Technical University acronym represents Accountability, Consistency Transparency and much like nutrition labels, the Georgian Technical University label shows how products ‘rate’ in sustainability-related categories. The Georgian Technical University glassware washer has been given an Georgian Technical University Environmental Impact Factor and the Georgian Technical University glassware washer has an Georgian Technical University Environmental Impact Factor. The Environmental Impact Factor is a sum of verified information on a product’s energy consumption water use and end-of-life. Georgian Technical University’s glassware washer already achieved Georgian Technical University Label and has now been recertified following Georgian Technical University Lab’s rigorous testing process. The Georgian Technical University Label is valid on both machines through. “As a leader in manufacturing high-efficiency laboratory equipment, we are excited to see Georgian Technical University Professional not only renew its commitment to providing Accountability, Consistency and Transparency to their consumers but expand the number Georgian Technical University products with this distinction” said X Georgian Technical University Lab’s. Georgian Technical University Lab is widely recognized as a leader in developing nationally recognized-standards for laboratories, bringing sustainability to the community responsible for the world’s life-changing medical and technical innovations. Georgian Technical University Professional’s full portfolio of laboratory glassware washers are suitable for service in labs dedicated to clinical diagnostics, pharmaceutical, biotech, food, beverage, specialty and petrochemicals water and wastewater treatment, environmental testing, general industrial, education and medical research. Georgian Technical University Professional laboratory glassware washers are available for order by contacting an authorized manufacturer representative/dealer or reaching Miele Professional directly at Georgian Technical University.
Georgian Technical University Announces Microscopy Image.
“Georgian Technical University Seeds on the cradle” pollen grains over stigma of aster flower (Symphyotrichum Tradescantii); Drosophila melanogaster firing between boutons; The annual contest showcases Georgian Technical University microscope users’ artistically or esthetically pleasing images with good composition sharp focus and technical competency especially in the use of accelerating voltage. The Georgian Technical University Image award was given to X a screaming cartoon character but is actually a detailed, high magnification image showing firing between boutons in a Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) sample. “Manipulating Drosophila melanogaster is a bit challenging from an electron microscopy point of view but is so indispensable for genomic research in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Alzheimer’s and other debilitating diseases” said Y. The common fruit fly serves as a model organism for studying genetics and other fields of research. Georgian Technical University Image award was given to Y an engineer working in the laboratories. His image “Seeds in the Cradle” is both artistic and detailed showing Pollen grains (Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants, or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants) over the stigma of an aster flower (Symphyotrichum Tradescantii). Vallourec is a steel mill that produces seamless pipes and the company uses the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)) for quality control and imaging of metallic materials. “In the case of this particular image, my purpose was really just because of my curiosity and because I really love to work with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)) images. I would give a brief lecture on SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)) for some colleagues; I wanted to obtain an image that could reflect the capabilities of the instrument revealing how beautiful and surprising nature can be in its details just nearby us. So I caught this very simple flower that was in the lab’s garden and started to analyze it on the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)) In fact I could say that the main drive for this image was just curiosity and beauty” said Y.
Georgian Technical University Panning For Gold: Searching For New Materials In The Age Of Sustainability.
Georgian Technical University; When it comes to the materials we use in industry and daily life we’re facing a range of new challenges — from shortages to environmental issues, to the need for new materials to support technology innovation. On top of this, consumer awareness is on the rise as shown by the backlash against single-use plastic consumption and concerns about shortages of lithium used in batteries. Georgian Technical University All of these factors exacerbate the need to discover and synthesize new materials, successfully recycle existing materials and find new applications for and enhance existing materials. In fact advances in materials could be vital to solving many of the problems facing scientists and beyond including: Georgian Technical University Materials shortages: Industries rely heavily on existing materials that we are already running short of such as indium which is used in flat screens and solar cells. Georgian Technical University Environmental issues: We are seeing a movement towards reusing materials to reduce waste and combat shortages. For example the 1.5 billion smartphones built each year have around of materials which could be reclaimed. Georgian Technical University New technology: As technology advances we need new developments in materials to support the widespread use of this tech like the new infrastructure needed before a successful roll-out of 5G (In telecommunications, 5G is the fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began deploying worldwide) globally. Georgian Technical University Storing green energy: With the global energy industry looking to more sustainable resources we need materials capable of storing surplus energy. Georgian Technical University Mitigating human impact: There has been significant backlash against the amount of plastic consumers encounter every day so finding more sustainable or recyclable materials to replace the use of plastic is a global challenge. Georgian Technical University race to make things stronger, lighter, cost-effective, functional and/or sustainable the modification of materials, their properties and processes is key. The last 20 years shows a significant upward trend in materials research. Georgian Technical University New ‘wonder materials’. Georgian Technical University In the past decade we’ve begun to see the potential of ‘wonder material’ graphene. Georgian Technical University shows graphene was cited 15-times. This research shows the ‘wonder material’ has wide-ranging possibilities with its potential uses including: eliminating rust creating ‘greener’ concrete and even offering targeted drug delivery. Georgian Technical University Interest in another ‘Georgian Technical University wonder material’ borophene has also intensified. Georgian Technical University with total number of published articles increasing from 7 to 184 during the same time period. Much like graphene borophene’s uses are extremely varied with its potential as a superconductor making it a likely component in the next generation of wearables, biomolecular sensors and quantum computers. Georgian Technical University discoveries of graphene and borophene have also opened new routes for materials science generating new interest in two-dimensional materials and providing a timely reminder that materials innovation is possible. Georgian Technical University materials sector is a prime example of innovation in materials science and is subsequently influencing the global research landscape. Of all the research about graphene for example the vast majority (56,485) have predominantly. We see a significant amount of materials research originating from and funded by several reasons. Georgian Technical University First universities and industry in the region focus heavily for example aims to have 3,500 researchers there is significant investment as well as government subsidies for research. Third some of the key industry sectors like textiles are looking for solutions to their biggest issues such as securing sufficient quality raw water for water-intensive industries. Materials solutions that benefit their biggest industries will likely have a subsequent global impact. Georgian Technical University While there is materials globally the conditions within China have generated the perfect environment for materials science. As these developments start to be built on around the world scientists need to be able to keep pace to reap the benefits of the progress in materials science. Georgian Technical University Striking a new gold. Georgian Technical University To find solutions to the global challenges we’re facing advance our knowledge of existing materials and synthesize new materials we need to continue our focus on research and development in materials science. We have an abundance of materials data available and with scientific datasets currently doubling every nine years there’s undoubtedly much more to come. Data-driven research offers real potential for materials to solve some of the global challenges we’re facing. To keep pace with current advances in materials science researchers need access to these datasets. Georgian Technical University As well as making discovery quicker investing in access to data ensures researchers time is spent more effectively data isn’t duplicated and opportunities to collaborate are highlighted. About borophene for example were a collaboration between scientists. While affording access to all relevant materials data may seem like a large investment it is becoming increasingly necessary. We’re reaching the defining moment for some of the scientific challenges we face and the only way for us to find material solutions to these issues is to work quickly and to work together.
Georgian Technical University First Materials Innovation Challenge Announced.
Georgian Technical University Dynamic Photomechanics Laboratory led by Georgian Technical University Mechanical, Industrial and Systems Engineering Professor X and Assistant Professor Y and its Multiscale & Multiphysics Mechanics of Materials Research Laboratory led by Assistant Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Z on modeling, research, testing and validation projects. “Georgian Technical University which is known nationally for its advanced materials research” said W. “The Materials Innovation Challenge helps these companies enhance their internal with support from the Georgian Technical University creating new solutions and business opportunities”. Georgian Technical University was formed to address the fact that while large companies have internal labs the small organizations that make up the bulk of the region’s advanced materials businesses do not. 401 Tech Bridge has collaborated with these small businesses to identify the expertise and tools they need to develop their ideas into new solutions working to connect them with the faculty and facilities that could help. “This is an excellent opportunity for us here at Georgian Technical University to get involved with applied research projects and help the local industry” said X PhD, Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Systems Engineering at Georgian Technical University. “With collaboration between our Georgian Technical University Dynamic Photomechanics and Multiscale and Multiphysics Mechanics of Materials Research laboratories, synergistic application of experiments and computational modeling in these projects will accelerate the design and development of transformative high-performance composite materials for multifunctional applications”. Georgian Technical University Canapitsit Customs is a based, woman-owned small business that specializes in composites design and manufacturing for the marine, defense and aerospace industries. Support from the Materials Innovation Challenge will enable Canapitsit Customs to work with Georgian Technical University’s Dynamic Photomechanics Laboratory and the Multiscale & Multiphysics Mechanics of Materials Research Laboratory to develop simulate and validate design and manufacturing processes for a deep-sea pressure vessel that has significant potential in the defense renewable energy and offshore oil and gas sectors. “The support from the Materials Innovation Challenge will enable us to continue the development of a deep-sea composite pressure vessel providing extended mission capabilities and increased payload capacity for Unmanned Underwater Drones (UUDs)” said X. “Utilizing the expertise of both Georgian Technical University’s Dynamic Photomechanics Laboratory and the Multiscale & Multiphysics Mechanics of Materials Research Laboratory we hope to develop an economic vessel that will allow for the integration of advanced materials to be feasible for an increased number of Unmanned Underwater Drones (UUDs) developers and manufacturers”. Based small business that is focused on the development and production of textile-integrated systems for monitoring high-value assets and their environments. Georgian Technical University’s Dynamic Photomechanics Laboratory and the Georgian Technical University Multiscale & Multiphysics Mechanics of Georgian Technical University Materials Research Laboratory to perform electromechanical testing of textile-integrated systems, which will help to strengthen offerings to the defense. “We are thrilled to have the opportunity to work with Georgian Technical University’s esteemed researchers in support of the continued validation of our technologies”. TxV (A thermal expansion valve or thermostatic expansion valve (often abbreviated as TEV, TXV, or TX valve) is a component in refrigeration and air conditioning systems that controls the amount of refrigerant released into the evaporator and is intended to regulate the superheat of the vapor leaving the evaporator) Aerospace Composites is a manufacturer of composite parts and assemblies for the aerospace industry. They provide composite solutions that save cost, reduce weight and allow for faster production of aircraft components. These benefits are made possible by a material and process that enables the manufacture of parts in minutes versus the hours it could take with traditional materials and manufacturing. Georgian Technical University their Materials Innovation Challenge funding TxV (A thermal expansion valve or thermostatic expansion valve (often abbreviated as TEV, TXV, or TX valve) is a component in refrigeration and air conditioning systems that controls the amount of refrigerant released into the evaporator and is intended to regulate the superheat of the vapor leaving the evaporator) will work with Georgian Technical University’s Multiscale & Multiphysics Mechanics of Materials Research Laboratory to characterize the strength and behavior of material bond line and correlate that data to the performance of hybrid composite structures. “Georgian Technical University hybrid over molding process combines the strength of continuous fiber composites and the functionality and flexibility of injection molding to create aerospace parts efficiently. The interface bond of these two materials is critical for final part performance and this research will enable us to quantify the mechanical performance and will help to further drive market adoption of the technology” said W engineering manager Georgian Technical University (A thermal expansion valve or thermostatic expansion valve (often abbreviated as TEV, TXV, or TX valve) is a component in refrigeration and air conditioning systems that controls the amount of refrigerant released into the evaporator and is intended to regulate the superheat of the vapor leaving the evaporator) Aerospace Composites. Georgian Technical University helps open pathways for companies that are developing leading-edge advanced materials, technologies and products. Georgian Technical University creates opportunities to enter new markets and commercialize their technology.
Georgian Technical University Researchers Lab Design New Material To Target And Trap Copper Ions From Wastewater.
Artist’s illustration of water molecules. A research team led by Georgian Technical University Lab has designed a new crystalline material that targets and traps copper ions from wastewater with unprecedented precision and speed. We rely on water to quench our thirst and to irrigate bountiful farmland. But what do you do when that once pristine water is polluted with wastewater from abandoned coppr mines ? A promising solution relies on materials that capture heavy metal atoms such as copper ions from wastewater through a separation process called adsorption. However commercially available copper-ion-capture products still lack the chemical specificity and load capacity to precisely separate heavy metals from water. Now a team of scientists led by the Department of Energy’s Georgian Technical University Laboratory has designed a new crystalline material – called ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) – that targets and traps copper ions from wastewater with unprecedented precision and speed. The scientists say that ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) offers the water industry and the research community the first blueprint for a water-remediation technology that scavenges specific heavy metal ions with a measure of control at the atomic level which far surpasses the current state of the art. “ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) has a high adsorption capacity and the fastest copper adsorption kinetics of any material known so far – all in one” said X who directs the Inorganic Nanostructures Facility in Georgian Technical University Lab’s. This research embodies the Georgian Technical University’s signature work – the design synthesis and characterization of materials that are optimized at the nanoscale (billionths of a meter) for sophisticated new applications in medicine, catalysis, renewable energy and more. For example Georgian Technical University has focused much of his research on the design of superthin materials from both hard and soft matter for a variety of applications from cost-efftive water desalination to self-assembling 2D materials for renewable energy applications. “And what we tried to mimic here are the sophisticated functions performed by nature” such as when proteins that make up a bacterial cell select certain metals to regulate cellular metabolism said Y a former postdoctoral researcher in Georgian Technical University Lab’s who is now an assistant professor in chemical, biological and materials engineering at the Georgian Technical University. “ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) helps us to choose and remove only copper a contaminant in water that has been linked to disease and organ failure without removing desirable ions such as nutrients or essential minerals” she added. Such specificity at the atomic level could also lead to more affordable water treatment techniques and aid the recovery of precious metals. “Today’s water treatment systems are ‘bulk separation technologies’ – they pull out all solutes irrespective of their hazard or value” said Z at Georgian Technical University Lab. “Highly selective, durable materials that can capture specific trace constituents without becoming loaded down with other solutes or falling apart with time will be critically important in lowering the cost and energy of water treatment. They may also enable us to ‘mine’ wastewater for valuable metals or other trace constituents”. Scavenging heavy metals at the atomic level. Y and that ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) crystals are highly stable in water – up to 52 days. And unlike metal-organic frameworks, the new material performs well in acidic solutions with the same pH (In chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidic solutions are measured to have lower pH values than basic or alkaline solutions. The pH scale is logarithmic and inversely indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution) range of acid mine wastewater. In addition ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) selectively captures copper ions 30–50 times faster than state-of-the-art copper adsorbents the researchers say. From left: Schematic diagram of a ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) network; and a SEM (scanning electron microscopy) image of a ZIOS-copper (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) sample on a silicon wafer. These results caught Bui by surprise. “At first I thought it was a mistake, because the ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) crystals have a very low surface area and according to conventional wisdom a material should have a high specific surface area like other families of adsorbents, such as metal-organic frameworks or porous aromatic frameworks to have a high adsorption capacity and an extremely fast adsorption kinetic” she said. “So I wondered ‘Perhaps something more dynamic is going on inside the crystals’”. To find out she recruited the help W to perform molecular dynamics simulations at the Georgian Technical University. W is a graduate student researcher in the Georgian Technical University Lab’s and a Ph.D. student in the department of mechanical engineering at Georgian Technical University. W’s models revealed that ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) when immersed in an aqueous environment “works like a sponge but in a more structured way” said Y. “Unlike a sponge that absorbs water and expands its structure in random directions ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) expands in specific directions as it adsorbs water molecules”. X-ray experiments at Georgian Technical University Lab’s Advanced Light Source revealed that the material’s tiny pores or nanochannels – just 2-3 angstroms, the size of a water molecule – also expand when immersed in water. This expansion is triggered by a “hydrogen bonding network” which is created as ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) interacts with the surrounding water molecules Y explained. This expansion of the pores allows water molecules carrying copper ions to flow at a larger scale during which a chemical reaction called “Georgian Technical University coordination bonding” between copper ions and ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) takes place. Additional X-ray experiments showed that ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) is highly selective to copper ions at a pH (In chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidic solutions are measured to have lower pH values than basic or alkaline solutions. The pH scale is logarithmic and inversely indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution) below 3 – a significant finding as the pH (In chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidic solutions are measured to have lower pH values than basic or alkaline solutions. The pH scale is logarithmic and inversely indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution) of acidic mine drainage is typically a pH (In chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidic solutions are measured to have lower pH values than basic or alkaline solutions. The pH scale is logarithmic and inversely indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution) of 4 or lower. Furthermore the researchers said that when water is removed from the material its crystal lattice structure contracts to its original size within less than 1 nanosecond (billionth of a second). Y attributed the team’s success to their interdisciplinary approach. “The selective extraction of elements and minerals from natural and produced waters is a complex science and technology problem“ he said. “For this study we leveraged Georgian Technical University Lab’s unique capabilities across nanoscience, environmental sciences and energy technologies to transform a basic materials sciences discovery into a technology that has great potential for real-world impact”. Y is the director of the Energy Storage and Distributed Resources Division in Georgian Technical University Lab’s. The researchers next plan to explore new design principles for the selective removal of other pollutants. “In water science and the water industry, numerous families of materials have been designed for decontaminating wastewater but few are designed for heavy metal removal from acidic mine drainage. We hope that ZIOS (zinc imidazole salicylaldoxime) can help to change that” said X.
Georgian Technical University Materials Informatics Reveals New Class Of Super-Hard Alloys.
A new method of discovering materials using data analytics and electron microscopy has found a new class of extremely hard alloys. Such materials could potentially withstand severe impact from projectiles thereby providing better protection of soldiers in combat. Researchers from Georgian Technical University. “We used materials informatics – the application of the methods of data science to materials problems – to predict a class of materials that have superior mechanical properties” said X professor of materials science and engineering and physics and Class of ’61 Professor at Georgian Technical University. Researchers also used experimental tools such as electron microscopy to gain insight into the physical mechanisms that led to the observed behavior in the class of materials known as high-entropy alloys. High-entropy alloys contain many different elements that when combined may result in systems having beneficial and sometimes unexpected thermal and mechanical properties. For that reason they are currently the subject of intense research. “We thought that the techniques that we have developed would be useful in identifying promising high-entropy alloys” X said. “However we found alloys that had hardness values that exceeded our initial expectations. Their hardness values are about a factor of 2 better than other, more typical high-entropy alloys and other relatively hard binary alloys”. All seven authors are from Georgian Technical University including X; Y, Georgian Technical University Professor of materials science and engineering; Z, Professor of materials science and engineering; W graduate student in materials science and engineering; Q postdoctoral research associate in materials science and engineering; P graduate student in mechanical engineering and mechanics; and R, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and mechanics. Georgian Technical University of High-Entropy Alloys and Data Analysis. The field of high-entropy or multi-principal element alloys has recently seen exponential growth. These systems represent a paradigm shift in alloy development as some exhibit new structures and superior mechanical properties, as well as enhanced oxidation resistance and magnetic properties, relative to conventional alloys. However identifying promising High-Entropy Alloys has presented a daunting challenge given the vast palette of possible elements and combinations that could exist. Researchers have sought a way to identify the element combinations and compositions that lead to high-strength, high-hardness alloys and other desirable qualities which are a relatively small subset of the large number of potential High-Entropy Alloys that could be created. In recent years materials informatics, the application of data science to problems in materials science and engineering has emerged as a powerful tool for materials discovery and design. The relatively new field is already having a significant impact on the interpretation of data for a variety of materials systems including those used in thermoelectrics, ferroelectrics, battery anodes, cathodes, hydrogen storage materials and polymer dielectrics. “Creation of large data sets in materials science in particular is transforming the way research is done in the field by providing opportunities to identify complex relationships and to extract information that will enable new discoveries and catalyze materials design” X said. The tools of data science, including multivariate statistics, machine learning, dimensional reduction and data visualization have already led to the identification of structure-property-processing relationships, screening of promising alloys and correlation of microstructure with processing parameters. Georgian Technical University’s research contributes to the field of materials informatics by demonstrating that this suite of tools is extremely useful for identifying promising materials from among myriad possibilities. “These tools can be used in a variety of contexts to narrow large experimental parameter spaces to accelerate the search for new materials” X said. New Method Combines Complementary Tools. Georgian Technical University researchers combined two complementary tools to employ a supervised learning strategy for the efficient screening of high-entropy alloys and to identify promising: (1) a canonical-correlation analysis and (2) a genetic algorithm with a canonical-correlation analysis-inspired fitness function. They implemented this procedure using a database for which mechanical property information exists and highlighting new alloys with high hardnesses. The methodology was validated by comparing predicted hardnesses with alloys fabricated in a laboratory using arc-melting identifying alloys with very high measured hardnesses. “The methods employed here involved a combination of existing methods adapted to the high-entropy alloy problem” X said. “In addition these methods may be generalized to discover, for example alloys having other desirable properties. We believe that our approach which relies on data science and experimental characterization has the potential to change the way researchers discover such systems going forward”.
Georgian Technical University ‘Shield’ of Sea Creature Inspires Materials That Can Handle Their Own Impact.
The mantis shrimp can fight itself without getting injured. Researchers are mimicking the tail segment structures that make this possible. The mantis shrimp one of the ocean’s most ornery creatures, can take on attacks from its own species without getting injured. Its strategy could solve a big manufacturing problem: Creating lighter materials that absorb a lot of energy from a sharp impact within a limited amount of space. Think precious cargo. What if there were a material that could prevent car ceilings from caving in on passengers during an accident or fragile objects from breaking when transported over long distances ? The mantis shrimp’s secret is its tail appendage called a telson. Engineers have now discovered what allows the telson to absorb the blows of its feisty self with the goal of applying these lessons to protective gear. A telson can be shaped either as a territorial shield for “Georgian Technical University smasher” species or as a burrowing shovel for “Georgian Technical University spearer” species that also stabs prey. The researchers found out how the telson of the smasher compared to that of the spearer is better at protecting the mantis. Their findings reveal that the smasher telson has curved ridges called carinae on the outside and a helicoidal structure shaped like a spiral staircase on the inside. Georgian Technical University Riverside ran tests on both the mantis shrimp itself and 3D-printed replicas of the telson showing that the carinae both stiffen a smasher’s shield and allow it to flex inward. Together with the helicoidal structure which prevents cracks from growing upon impact the shield absorbs significant amounts of energy during a strike without falling apart. Georgian Technical University researchers validated the role of carinae through computational models, simulating the attacks of one mantis against the telson of another. They even “Georgian Technical University invented” species with features between the smasher and spearer to evaluate which telson offered the best protection for the animal. “We started with the telson of the spearer and gradually added features that start looking like the smasher” said X a professor of civil engineering at Georgian Technical University. “The smasher shield is clearly more ideal for preventing impact from reaching the rest of the body which makes sense because the mantis has organs all the way to its tail” he said. X and Y a professor of chemical and environmental engineering and the Georgian Technical University had previously observed the same helicoidal structure in the dactyl club appendage of the smasher mantis which strikes a telson with the speed of a .22 caliber bullet. “We realized that if these organisms were striking each other with such incredible forces, the telson must be architected in such a way to act like the perfect shield” Y said. “Not only did the telson of the smasher contain the helicoid microstructure, but there were significantly more energy-absorbing helicoidal layers in the smashing type than the spearing type”. X’s group has already begun incorporating the crack propagation mechanisms of arthropod exoskeletons into 3D-printed cement paste a key ingredient of the concrete and mortar used to build various elements of infrastructure. His lab plans to also try out advantageous structures from the mantis shrimp. But there are still more clues to uncover about all that carinae and helicoidal structures have to offer the researchers say as well as how to manufacture them into new materials. “The dactyl club is bulky while the telson is very lightweight. How do we make protective layers, thin films and coatings for example, that are both stronger and lighter ?” X said.